NSF Summer Institute on Nanomechanics, Nanomaterials and Micro/Nanomanufacturing

   
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Summer Institute on Energy Challenge and Nanotechnology
June 23 – 26, 2008
Northwestern University (ITW Conference Room, Ford Design Building)

June 23, 2008

 

 

0830 – 0900

Registration and breakfast

 

0900 – 1020

Photovoltaics

Prof. Angus Rockett, University of Illinois

1020 – 1040

Coffee break

 

1040 – 1200

Photovoltaics

Prof. Angus Rockett, University of Illinois

1200 – 1330

Lunch

 

1330 – 1520

Photovoltaics

Prof. Angus Rockett, University of Illinois

1520 – 1540

Coffee break

 

1540 – 1700

Photovoltaics

Prof. Angus Rockett, University of Illinois

 

 

 

June 24, 2008

 

 

0830 – 0900

Breakfast

 

0900 – 1020

Thermoelectrics

Prof. Mercouri Kanatzidis, Northwestern University

1020 – 1040

Coffee break

 

1040 – 1200

Thermoelectrics

Prof. Mercouri Kanatzidis, Northwestern University

1200 – 1330

Lunch

 

1330 – 1520

Fuel Cells

Prof. Scott A. Barnett, Northwestern University

1520 – 1540

Coffee break

 

1540 – 1700

Fuel Cells

Prof. Scott A. Barnett, Northwestern University

 

 

 

June 25, 2008

 

 

0830 – 0900

Breakfast

 

0900 – 1020

Biofuels

Prof. Harold H. Kung, Northwestern University

1020 – 1040

Coffee break

 

1040 – 1200

Biofuels

Prof. Harold H. Kung, Northwestern University

1200 – 1330

Lunch

 

1330 – 1520

Li-ion Batteries

Dr. Adam Timmons, General Motors

1520 – 1540

Coffee break

 

1540 – 1700

Li-ion Batteries

Dr. Adam Timmons, General Motors

1830

Banquet (Pine Yard)

 

June 26, 2008

 

 

0830 – 0900

Breakfast

 

0900 – 1020

Friction Reduction

Prof. Jane Wang, Northwestern University

1020 – 1040

Coffee break

 

1040 – 1200

Nuclear Energy

Prof. Elmer Lewis, Northwestern University

1200 –

Lunch

 

End

 

 


Photovoltaics:  Conversion of Solar Energy to Electricity

This course introduces the broad aspects of photoelectric solar cells, properly known as photovoltaics (or PV for short). The basic issues related to energy and how PV fits into the potential generating technologies are reviewed briefly and examples of actual installations are given.  A description of how PV power systems are designed is included.  A general introduction to the electrical and optical theory of the devices is provided including analysis of ideal and non-ideal device performance, reflection, transmission, carrier generation, and other aspects of the optical properties.  Different PV technologies will be described including concentrating and non-concentrating systems, single and multi-junction devices, thin film and bulk devices, thermophotovoltaics, and novel concepts such as photoelectrochemical cells, organic PV, and quantum dot structures.  Inorganic polycrystalline thin film technologies considered will include amorphous Si, CdTe, and CuInSe2 and related compounds.  Multi-junction high-efficiency concentrator design will be discussed.  The current status of each of these technologies and some of the issues and potential limitations to them are discussed.

Instructor: Angus Rockettis Professor and Associate Head of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois, a Fellow of the AVS and Research Program Administrator at Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy in 2000.  He holds a Sc.B. in Physics from Brown University (1980) and a Ph.D. in Materials Science from the University of Illinois (1986).  He has won numerous awards for teaching and advising from the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois.  His research has concerned the science of physical vapor deposition growth methods and semiconductor defects using both experimental and theoretical methods, the basic science of solar cell materials and the operation of solar cell devices.  He has given short courses on photovoltaics and sputter deposition of thin films solar cells in AVS and other symposia in the US, China, Mexico, Sweden, Israel, Brazil, and elsewhere.  He can be reached at arockett@uiuc.edu.

Thermoelectricity: Heat to Electrical Energy Conversion

We will begin with thermoelectricity basics, including the figure of merit, semiconductors and electronic structure, and benefits of thermoelectric energy conversion.  An overview of thermoelectric applications in the context of today’s energy situation will be presented.  The problem in improving the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency will be framed in light of the typical electrical and thermal transport behavior of materials, leading to selection criteria for candidate materials.  Opportunities to make major advances in figure of merit with proper materials design, use of thin films and nanostructuring will be discussed in detail.

Instructor: Mercouri G Kanatzidis received his bachelor's degree from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Greece in 1979.  He received his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the University of Iowa in 1984. He currently is a Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University after being a University Distinguished Professor at Michigan State University from 1987 to 2006.  He was a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Michigan and Northwestern University from 1985 to 1987. He has been visiting professor at the University of Nantes (Institute des Materiaux Jean Rouxel) in 1996 and the University of Muenster in 2003.  Prof. Kanatzidis has been named a Presidential Young Investigator by the National Science Foundation, an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, a Beckman Young Investigator, a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teaching Scholar, a Guggenheim Fellow and was awarded the Alexander von Humboldt Prize.  He received the Morley Medal from the American Chemical Society, Cleveland Section, in 2003.  His research has generated seminal work in metal chalcogenide chemistry through the development of novel "solvents" for solid state synthesis including flux methods, hydrothermal and solvothermal techniques, and new thermoelectric materials.  His research is described in over 460 publications.  He can be reached at m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu.

Fuel Cells, Nanotechnology, and Energy Applications

We will begin with a discussion of fuel cell basics (types of fuels cells and electrochemistry), followed by the subject of materials and microstructure, with a focus on solid oxide fuel cells.  The performance of the fuel cell system will be discussed in the framework of the nanoscale (nanostructure of the materials) and macroscale (system stack) architecture of the system.  Finally, a survey of various energy applications of fuel cells will be presented. 

Instructor: Scott Barnett is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University.  He is also founder of Functional Coating Technology LLC.  After receiving his Ph.D. in Metallurgy from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1982, he held postdoctoral appointments at the University of Illinois and Linkoping University (Sweden).   He took his present position at Northwestern in 1986.  His research focuses on thin films and coatings produced by ion-assisted deposition, physical vapor deposition, and colloidal deposition methods.  His materials focus is on nano-layered nitride hard coatings, transparent conducting oxide thin films, and solid oxide fuel cells. Dr. Barnett has published over 160 papers in peer-reviewed journals, has 11 issued patents, and has been an invited speaker at many national and international conferences.  In 1986 he was awarded the ONR Young Investigator Award, and in 1998 was honored as Fellow of the American Vacuum Society.  He can be reached at s-barnett@northwestern.edu.

Biofuels

The course begins with the definition and types of biofuels.  The energy content and potential benefits of biofuels will be presented (i.e., how much fossil fuel savings and emission reduction can one expect ?).  The chemistry and processing of biomass into biofuels will be reviewed, followed by a critical discussion of other topics such as the potentially available biomass for biofuel production, competition for land use and food supply, and the use of biofuels in the overall energy supply picture.

Instructor: Harold H. Kung is Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Director of Center for Energy Efficient Transportation at Northwestern University.  He received his BS in chemical engineering from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and PhD in chemistry from Northwestern University.  After two years at the Central Research Department of Dupont Chemical Company, he joined the faculty at Northwestern.  His research interest includes novel materials synthesis and applications, catalysis, chemical processes, energy and sustainability, and medical device development.  He was recipient of the Paul Emmett Award and Robert Burwell Lectureship Award of the North American Catalysis Society, the Herman Pines Award of the Chicago Catalysis Club, the Cross Canada Catalysis Lecturer, and the South African Catalysis Society Distinguished Visitor.  He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and an Editor of Applied Catalysis A: General.  He can be reached at hkung@northwestern.edu.

103 kg Vehicles Driven by 10-21 kg Particles:
Why EV Batteries Use Nanoscale Li-Ion Electrode Materials

The nano-science aspects of modern Li-ion batteries will be discussed with respect to the significance in vehicle batteries, namely those that utilize the LiFePO4 positive electrode active material. The presentation will begin with a survey of the Li-ion technology from a chemical perspective that will touch upon many of the chemistries that are available for Li-ion cells.  Then the HEV, PHEV and EV specific battery requirements will be considered. Thirdly, the pros and cons of the LiFePO4 chemistry will be presented. The presentation will conclude with a detailed look at the LiFePO4 chemistry and its enabling technologies, including the use of nanoscale particles and the associated challenges.

Instructor: Adam Timmons is a principal investigator with General Motors Research and Development in the field of advanced electrochemistry and battery systems.  His research centers on evaluating and understanding new electrochemical energy storage chemistries and physical processes, with a focus on the relevance to advanced vehicle applications.  Adam is a graduate of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he earned a PhD under Professor Jeff Dahn.  His PhD followed an undergraduate degree in Physics and Engineering from Acadia University where he was part of the Acadia Center for Microstructural Analysis, researching solar photovoltaic and charge


density wave materials.  He can be reached at adam.timmons@gm.com.

Better Energy Efficiency via Friction Reduction

Friction reduction is important from the perspective of energy saving and reduced environmental impact.  In mechanical systems, power and motion are transmitted through surface contact and relative motion.  In some cases, more than one-third of energy produced is dissipated through frictional loss. This lecture discusses three means of friction reduction: (1) design and optimization of surface topography, (2) modification of the material and boundary layer, and (3) improvement of rheological properties of lubricants.

Instructor: Dr. Q. Jane Wang received her Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1993. She is now a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Northwestern University, a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE), and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).  Her recent awards include the election to STLE Fellow in 2007, Adviser Award Certificate from the ASME Board of Governors in 2002, Ralph R. Teeter Educational Award from SAE International in 2000, CAREER Award from US National Science Foundation, and the Captain Alfred E. Hunt Award for Best Papers from STLE in 1997.  She is an Associate Editor of Journal of Tribology and Tribology Transactions.  She can be reached at qwang@northwestern.edu.

The Challenges of Nuclear Energy

It is generally agreed that nuclear energy is one component of the solution to our current energy problem.  We will begin this discussion with an overview of fission, fusion and fossil fuels.  Reactor design and operation will then be presented.  We will highlight and discuss in detail critical issues of fuel reprocessing and waste disposal.

Instructor: Prof. Elmer Lewis received his B.S. in Engineering Physics (1960) and a M.S. (1962) and Ph.D. (1964) in Nuclear Engineering at the University of Illinois, Urbana.  He served as a Captain in the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps and as a Ford Foundation Fellow and Assistant Professor of Nuclear Engineering at MIT before joining Northwestern's faculty in 1968.  In addition to serving as Chair of Northwestern's Department of Mechanical Engineering (1987-1997), he has held appointments as Visiting Professor at the University of Stuttgart and Guest Scientist at the Nuclear Research Center at Karlsruhe, Germany.  He has been a frequent consultant to Argonne and Los Alamos National Laboratories and to a number of industrial firms.  A Fellow of the American Nuclear Society, and winner of its Mathematics and Computation Distinguished Service and Arthur Holly Compton Awards, Professor Lewis serves on the Editorial Boards of the journals Nuclear Science and Engineering and Transport Theory and Statistical Physics.  He has held a number of offices in the American Nuclear Society, including Chair of its Mathematics and Computation Division.  His research resulted in significant advances in a wide variety of topics including neutronics computational methods, radiation transport, the physics and safety of nuclear systems, reliability and quality modeling and Monte Carlo simulation. He is author or co-author of nearly 200 journal articles and conference proceeding papers. He has written four engineering textbooks as well as a historical appreciation of engineering intended for a more general audience.  He can be reached at e-lewis@northwestern.edu.