NSF Summer Institute on Nanomechanics, Nanomaterials, and Micro/Nanomanufacturing

 
   
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Principles of and Recent Advances in Laser Micro/Nano Manufacturing Processes
June 1-4, 2010
Hilton Garden Inn
Evanston, IL 60201
 

Organizers:

Jian Cao (Northwestern University, jcao@northwestern.edu)
Yung Shin (Purdue University, shin@purdue.edu)
Jane Wang (Northwestern University, qwang@northwestern.edu)

Instructors

Lin X. Chen (Northwestern University)
Tony Hoult (IPG)
Kevin Kirkham (Ophir)
Samuel Mao (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
Ian Read (Spectra Physics)
Steven J. Rehse (Wayne State University)
Yung Shin (Purdue University)
Juergen Stollhof (Trumpf)
Cheng Sun (Northwestern University)
Xianfan Xu (Purdue University)

Course Organization
Lasers have been increasingly used in fabricating/shaping micro- and nano-features on various engineering and bio-materials. Since its introduction some forty years ago, lasers have spawned many applications in manufacturing, measurement strategies, and medical procedures. The objective of this short course is to provide attendees with a balanced review of principles and applications, as well as recent research trends. Topics include laser fundamentals, modeling, laser diagnostics and applications in micro-, nano-manufacturing, bios and chemistry.

 

June 1, 2010

 Tuesday

7:30 – 8:00

Registration

8:00 – 8:30

Welcome and Introduction – Jian Cao, Northwestern University

8:30 – 10:30

Laser Optics and Laser-Matter Interactions – Xianfan Xu, Purdue University

10:30 – 10:45

Break

10:45 – 11:45

Laser-induced Heat Transfer - Xianfan Xu, Purdue University

 

 

11:45 – 13:00

Lunch

13:00 – 14:00

Laser-induced Heat Transfer - Xianfan Xu, Purdue University

14:00 – 15:00

Material Modeling:  Solidification, phase transformation, microstructure evolution -  Yung Shin, Purdue University

15:00 – 15:30

Break

15:30 – 17:00

Material Modeling:  Solidification, phase transformation, microstructure evolution -  Yung Shin, Purdue University

June 2, 2010

 Wednesday

8:30–10:30

Plasma Formation and Expansion - Samuel Mao, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

10:30–10:45

Break

10:45–11:45

New Solid State Lasers – Juergen Stollhof, Trumpf

11:45 – 13:00

Lunch

13:00 – 14:30

Progress in Fiber Lasers – Tony Hoult, IPG

14:30 – 14:45

Break

14:45 – 15:45

The Progression of Modern Ultrafast Systems  - Ian Read, Spectra physics

15:45 – 16:00

Break

16:00 – 17:00

Laser Beam Power, Energy and Profiling  - Kevin Kirkham, Ophir

 

 

June 3, 2010

 Thursday

8:30 – 10:30

Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy - Steven J. Rehse, Wayne State University

10:30–10:45

Break

10:45–11:45

Ultrafast Laser Applications in Chemistry, Biology and Materials Sciences - Lin X. Chen, Northwestern University

11:45 – 13:00

Lunch

13:00 – 14:00

Ultrafast Laser Applications in Chemistry, Biology and Materials Sciences - Lin X. Chen, Northwestern University

14:00 – 14:15

Break

14:15 – 15:30

Laser Micromachining - Cheng Sun, Northwestern University

15:30 -15:45

Break

15:45 – 17:00

Near Field Nanomanufacturing –  Cheng Sun, Northwestern University

 

 

June 4, 2010

 Friday

8:30 – 10:30

Process Monitoring in Micro, Nano, and Bio Laser Processing - Cheng Sun, Northwestern University

10:30–10:45

Break

10:45 – Noon

Laser Shock Peening and Closing Remarks - Yung Shin, Purdue University

 

 

Registration Fee


Status

Registration Fee

Deadline

Fellowship Application

Covered by NSF

March 31, 2010

Early Registration

$1600

April 15, 2010

Registration after April 15, 2010

$2,000

 

Location
The course will be held at the Hilton Garden Inn - 1818 Maple Avenue, Evanston, IL.
Accommodations
A block of rooms has been reserved at the Hilton Garden Inn.  The organizers will make hotel reservations for fellowship awardees and speakers.  Other attendees can make reservations via:  (1) phone by calling the hotel direct at 847-475-6400 or through 1-877-HILTONS.  Please mention “Laser Processes” to receive discounted rates of $132. per night for a King or a Double room.  (2) online http://www.hiltongardeninn.com/en/gi/hotels/index.jhtml?ctyhocn=ORDEVGI, enter dates of stay, hit "go" and enter 'Group/Convention Code': LPC. The cut-off date is May 10, 2010.
Registration
Please register through the NSF Summer Institute website:
www.tam.northwestern.edu/summerinstitute
 
Fellowships
U.S. professors, post-doctoral researchers and graduate students can apply for fellowship support through the website noted above.  Fellowship applications are due March 31, 2010.  Each fellowship award covers the following:
Full registration
Up to four-night stay at the Hilton Garden Inn based upon double occupancy
Lunches on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday
Contact
Website:         tam.northwestern.edu/summerinstitute
Email:             summerinstitute@mail.mech.northwestern.edu

 

Abstracts

June 1, 2010

Laser Optics and Laser-Matter Interactions
This lecture will discuss basic properties of laser beam and its propagation, and interactions of laser beam with matters. Topics include (1) basic electromagnetic wave theory and Gaussian beam optics, including laser beam diverging and focusing, and focal distance and focal spot calculations, (2) introduction to optical properties and wavelength/spectral dependence of optical properties of various materials, and (3) computation of absorption of laser energy in various materials according to laser beam propagation and focusing conditions and the resulting heat generation.

Laser-induced Heati Transfer
This lecture will discuss heat transfer in a solid material as a result of laser heating, including continuous wave (CW) laser heating, periodic laser heating, and pulsed laser heating. Topics include (1) review of basic heat transfer concepts and equations - conduction and radiation, and the appropriate boundary conditions for solving laser heating problems, (2) methods for computing temperature rise and distribution in a material caused by laser heating, (3) solutions of common laser heating problems, and (4) ultrafast laser heating in metals and other materials and solution methods.

Material Modeling:  Solidification, Phase Transformation, Microstructure Evolution
During laser heating or ablation, the material subject to laser irradiation will experience rapid change of temperature and phases.   The attendant rapid heating and cooling will bring phase transformation in solid state or during the melting and solidification process.  The lecture will cover some basic theories describing the solid state phase transformation, phase transformation and microstructure evolution during solidification.   Along with theories some numerical modeling techniques will be introduced along with selected examples for different laser-material processing applications.

June 2, 2010

Plasma Formation and Expansion
This lecture will provide an overview of the progress in understanding pulsed laser-induced plasma formation and expansion, covering phenomena having time scales ranging from femtoseconds to microseconds. Both experimental and theoretical evidence of how plasma forms and expands following laser interaction with a solid target will be presented. In particular, a recently discovered nonequilibrium microscale laser plasma will be introduced in addition to conventional spherical plasma following a nanosecond or longer laser interaction. The lecture will end with a brief introduction of diverse applications of laser-induced plasma.

New Solid State Lasers - The Disk Technology
The quasi two-dimensional geometry of the disk laser results in advantages over other geometries. Fundamentally, the thin disk laser allows true power scaling by increasing the pump spot diameter on the disk while keeping the power density constant. This scaling procedure keeps optical peak intensity, temperature, stress profile, and optical path differences in the disk nearly unchanged. In this presentation we will show  the fundamental concepts of the disk technology and we will concentrate on results and laser applications in the wide range of multi kW-class CW-sources, high power nanosecond sources and ultrashort pulsed sources.

Progress in Fiber Lasers
The recent arrival of the fiber laser has changed the landscape of the laser industry completely. Early low power devices revolutionized the telecom industry. Scaling these devices to multi-kilowatt power levels has now changed the high power laser industry. This dramatic progress has stimulated the build up of a complete range of active and passive fiber laser components. This has opened up a range of options for the laser designer and a number of new laser types are now available such as Master Oscillator Power Fiber Amplifier lasers (MOPFA) lasers.  In addition, new polarisation maintaining pump lasers and a novel second harmonic frequency generation module has led to a low nanosecond green (532nm) laser. Laser beam generation and the optical properties of these beams will be discussed along with their pulsing capabilities. Beam manipulation and focusing requirements for industrial scale processes will also be presented.

The Progression of Modern Ultrafast Systems: a comprehensive look.
Over the past 30 years, our ability to generate light pulses in the pico-, femto-, and attosecond range has progressed significantly.  As a result, many applications have been facilitated in biology (multiphoton microscopy), chemistry (2-D IR spectroscopy, coherent control), and physics (high harmonic generation).  This presentation covers the basic principles used in modern ultrafast laser systems with a special emphasis on Titanium Sapphire.  Methods for producing light pulses of various energies will be evaluated and the applications facilitated by the technology are reviewed.  From a commercial perspective, the design strategies used to manufacture ultrafast lasers will be mentioned with a special emphasis on automation.  In addition, the future directions of ultrafast laser science are discussed.

June 3, 2010

Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a spectrochemical technique which utilizes intense focused laser pulses to create a high-temperature (10,000 K) micro-plasma seeded with atoms ablated from a target material of interest by the same laser pulse.  Time resolved spectroscopy of this plasma reveals easily-resolved emission lines from excited free ions and neutral atoms in the plasma, allowing an identification of the elements in the target and a measurement of their respective concentrations.  This lecture will provide the fundamentals of LIBS, computerized chemometric signal processing techniques and its staggeringly wide range of applications from defense, manufacturing, agriculture, art, biology, to forensic science.

 

Ultrafast Laser Applications in Chemistry, Biology and Materials Sciences
Introductory lectures will be given to ultrafast lasers and their applications covering four sections: 1) ultrafast pulsed lasers: basic concepts and common approaches; 2) chemical phenomena studied by ultrafast lasers; 3) applications of ultrafast lasers in biology; and 4) dynamic processes studied by ultrafast lasers in nanoscience.  The basic principles of pulsed lasers will be introduced along with several commonly used ultrafast laser methods, such as pump-probe spectroscopy, fluorescence upconverion, optical anisotropy, and two-dimensional spectroscopy.  The application examples will be given from a list of events taking place on different time scales and length scales.  The examples will be related to solar energy conversion, photosynthesis, protein dynamics, chemical reaction control and imaging, as well as photophysics and photochemistry of polymers and nanoparticles.        

Laser Micromachining
This course will talk about the fundamental of laser micromachining technologies. Various state-of-the-art laser micromachining techniques will be reviewed. Principle of laser materials processing, principle of laser optical physics, and materials interaction with laser beam will be discussed.  The course will also talk about the challenges and opportunities for potential applications of laser micromachining.

Near field Nanomanufacturing
The introduction of near-field optics promises the nanofabrication at the resolution much beyond the diffraction limit of the light and thus, enables manufacturing with nanometer accuracy. This course begins with the introduction of the principle of optical physics, the concepts of diffraction limit, and near-field optics. The surface Plasmon enhanced near-field imaging and optical lithography techniques will also be discussed. Finally, the course will discuss the potential applications of near-field nanomanufacutirng.

June 4, 2010

Process Monitoring in Micro, Nano, and Bio Laser Processing
This course will cover a broad range of topics centered on control and monitoring functions for manufacturing processed. Topics include process control, data collection and analysis, feedback algorithm, scheduling, and machine-computer interfacing. The effectiveness of process control and monitoring for micro- and nano-scale manufacturing processes will also be discussed. 

Laser Shock Peening
Laser shock peening (LSP) is an emerging competitive technology as a method of imparting compressive residual stresses into the surface of metals to improve fatigue and corrosion properties. Compared with the traditional shot peening, which has been widely used for the past six decades, LSP can produce a deeper plasmatic deformation depth and a higher magnitude of residual stresses.  LSP is often performed under a water confinement regime (WCR), which involves several complicated physical processes.  This lecture covers the basic physical phenomena taking place during LSP along with the basic theories describing those and numerical modeling techniques to predict the resultant residual stresses.  Some sample experimental results will also be shown.

Biographies:
photo1
 Prof. Lin X. Chen received her B.S. in chemistry from Peking University in China, and her Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Chicago where she studied ultrafast protein dynamics using laser spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. Her postdoctoral research was conducted in University of California at Berkeley, where she studied the molecular dynamics of long chain molecules via Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as normal mode analysis.  In 1989, she joined the Chemistry Division at Argonne National Laboratory where she is currently a senior scientist.  Since 2007, she holds a joint appointment as a Professor of Chemistry in the Chemistry Department at Northwestern University.  Prof. Chen’s research goal is to be able to understand and control electron and energy flow in materials and during chemical reaction mechanisms with light. She has established a facility for laser pump, x-ray probe dynamic structural studies at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.  Her research interests focus mainly on the fundamental interactions between molecules and light (from IR to X-rays) and the consequences of these interactions in solar energy conversion. Prof. Chen pioneered X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy (XTA) to establish four-dimensional detection on time evolution of molecular structures (x,y,z,t) which reveals correlations of structural factors and chemical reactivity along chemical reaction coordinates, and will lead to rational control of photochemical reactions at electronic and atomic levels.

 

2Dr Tony Hoult is trained as a Materials Engineer. He has been working for many years as a Laser Materials Processing specialist in both industry and in academia. He worked for Lumonics in Rugby, UK on early high power solid state lasers followed by a lengthy period as a Research Fellow in the field of laser applications at the University of Warwick, UK where he gained his PhD. He moved to the US in 1999 to set up a Laser Applications Laboratory for Coherent and then spent several years with a fiber laser start-up as Applications Manager. Most recently he has set up a new laser micro-processing laboratory for IPG Photonics in Santa Clara, CA and is now applying these novel laser sources to a wide range of industrial laser applications.

 

3Dr. Samuel Mao is a career staff scientist of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Berkeley and currently, he is leading a multidisciplinary research team studying ultrafast laser material interactions and the application of lasers for fabrication and characterization of new materials. Dr. Mao has published over seventy peer-reviewed articles including five book chapters, whose work have received more than four thousand citations. He has delivered forty invited talks at various international conferences, and he is an inventor of over a dozen US and international patents. Since 2005 he has been a judge for the annual "R&D 100" International Technology Awards. Dr. Mao frequently serves as a program review panel member and grant reviewer for a number of private organizations and government agencies. He was a co-organizer of the First International Energy Nanotechnology Conference, and the First International Symposium on Transparent Conducting Materials. He will be a general chair for the Materials Research Society annual meeting in spring 2011.

 

Ian A. Read, Ph.D.
       Dr. Read is currently Senior Product Marketing Manager at Spectra-Physics Lasers, a Newport corporation brand.  He received a Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh in 2002 under the direction of David H. Waldeck where he studied condensed phase spectroscopy of molecular complexes in the ps and fs time scales.  During his time at Spectra-Physics, Dr. Read has been instrumental in defining the direction of several key applications, most notably multiphoton microscopy.  In his current role, Dr. Read manages the ultrafast amplifier line which includes standard regenerative amplifier systems (CPA), high energy multipass amplifiers, and optical parametric amplifiers.

 

4Steve Rehse received his B.S. in Physics from Michigan Technological University in 1993.  After working for two years at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the Chemical and Laser Sciences Division, he attended Colorado State University where he received his Ph.D. in Physics in 2002.  Under the guidance of Prof. Siu Au Lee, he investigated laser cooling and atom focusing of gallium for atom lithography.  He spent three years as a post-doctoral fellow and research scientist at the University of Western Ontario making laser-based laboratory astrophysics measurements and performing precision wavelength metrology.  He is currently an Assistant Professor at Wayne State University in Detroit, MI, where he joined the faculty in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in 2005.  He lives in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and is married with no children.

 

5 Yung C. Shin is the Donald A. and Nancy G. Roach Professor of Advanced Manufacturing at Purdue University.  He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1984. He worked as a senior project engineer at the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan from 1984 to 1988 and then as an assistant professor at the Pennsylvania State University from 1988 to 1990.  In 1990, he joined the School of Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University. He established the Center for Laser-based Manufacturing in 2003 and currently is serving as its director. His research areas include laser-based manufacturing and materials processing, intelligent and adaptive control of manufacturing processes, machining of advanced materials, process monitoring and automation.  He has published over 230 papers in archived refereed journals and refereed conference proceedings, and has authored  chapters in several engineering handbooks, co-edited two books, and recently co-authored a  book entitled "Intelligent Systems: Modeling, Optimization and Control".  In addition, he has given numerous presentations at various conferences and lectures at different universities, research institutions and industrial companies.

 

6Juergen Stollhof studied laser physics at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germany. Until 2007 he worked as an Innovation Manager at TRUMPF in Germany. From 2007 through 2009 he worked as the Technical Sales Manager at TRUMPF Inc in Laser technology Center in Plymouth, MI. There he was responsible for all technical aspects of laser sales.  In January 2010 he started his new position as Program Manager in TRUMPF US headquarter in Farmington, CT. Currently, he is responsible for all business aspects of laser micro processing in North America.

 

 

7 Prof. Cheng Sun is currently Assistant Professor at Mechanical Engineering Department at Northwestern University since September 2007. He received his PhD in Industrial Engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 2002. He received his MS and BS in Physics from Nanjing University in 1993 and 1996, respectively.  Prior to coming to Northwestern, he was Chief Operating Officer and Senior Scientist at the NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for Scalable and Integrated Nanomanufacturing at UC Berkeley. Sun’s primary research interests are in the fields of Emerging applications of nano-electronics, nano-photonics, nano-electromechanical systems and nano-biomedical systems necessitate developments of viable nano-manufacturing technologies. His research group is engaged in developing novel nano-scale fabrication techniques and integrated nano-system for bio-sensing and high-efficiency energy conversion. He has published more than 50 technical papers including publications in Science, Nature Photonics, Nature Nanotechnology, and Nature Materials.

 

8
 Xianfan Xu is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University, with a courtesy appointment at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1994. His research includes fundaments of laser-matter interaction, near field/nano-optics, laser-based micro- and nano-engineering, and ultrafast diagnostics of energy transfer in nanomaterials including nano-structured energy conversion materials. He has published nearly 100 articles in archival journals, given over 70 invited lectures at international conferences, academic institutions, government laboratories and industry, and chaired numerous conferences on laser processing/manufacturing. He is the recipient of the National Science Foundation Faculty CAREER Award, the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award, the B.F.S. Schaefer Young Faculty Scholar Award, and the Discovery in Mechanical Engineering Award of Purdue University. He is a fellow of the American Society of American Engineers and a fellow of SPIE (formerly known as the International Society for Optical Engineering).